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|Title:||Biopesticide of Neem Obtained by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction: An Alternative to Improve the Pest Control||Keywords:||contamination;pesticide residues;biopesticides;Azadirachta indica;food-grade enzymes;info:eu-repo/classification/cti/2||Publisher:||IntechOpen||Project:||2019;||Description:||The indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides to control pests and diseases without technical assistance instead of solving the pest problems has caused environmental damage, agriculture productivity, and human health. Pesticides can remain for several years in the soil, being able to contaminate rivers and lagoons, animals of shepherding and foods. Besides, in recent years, pests have shown an alarmingly resistance over several pesticides. This makes necessary the use of other natural sources of pesticides that could be degraded avoiding the resistance problem. One of the main sources analyzed is the neem (Azadirachta indica) due to its complex content of bioactive triterpenoids. However, cellulosic structures of cell wall conditioned the extraction of these components, acting as physical barrier and avoiding its complete extraction. This chapter included a review of the consequences of the use of chemical pesticides to control pests spread in plant and animals and its repercussions on the environment. Moreover, the advantages of the use of food-grade enzyme preparations as an alternative to elaborate an extract of neem without organic solvents are exposed. The results are promissory and could improve the acaricide and repellent effects of the neem extracts over pests, reducing the negative effect caused by chemical pesticides.
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