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dc.contributor.author Mostafa Yousef, Elahi
dc.contributor.author Hassan, Kargar
dc.contributor.author Mohammad Salehi, Dindarlou
dc.contributor.author Ahmed E., Kholif
dc.contributor.author Mona M., Y. Elghandour
dc.contributor.author Rojas-Herna´ndez, Saul
dc.contributor.author E. Odongo, Nicholas
dc.contributor.author Salem, A.Z.M.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-14T17:39:04Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-14T17:39:04Z
dc.date.issued 2016-05-21
dc.identifier.issn 0167-4366
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11799/65941
dc.description Almond, (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species belonging to the Rosaceae family (Sfahlan et al. 2009). The state of California in the USA is the major producer of almond; however, its production is widely distributed (Wijerante et al. 2006) and there is increasing interest to produce almond and its by-products worldwide. Approximately 2,112,815 metric ton of almonds with shell is produced globally with Iran contributing about 110,000 metric ton (FAO 2007). Almond is a midsize tree with fruit that can grow up to ten meters tall (Chen et al. 2010). The fruit is made of hulls, shell and kernel. Drying almond hulls results in approximately (kg-1 DM) 250 g nut, 500 g hulls and 250 g shell (Aguilar et al. 1984; Fadel 1999). es
dc.description.abstract The current study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of almond tree (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus; var. Shokoufeh) leaves versus hulls, and green versus dry leaves as feed for ruminants. The fresh green almond hulls (GAH) and leaves (GAL) were harvested and spread under a shade to dry. Dry almond leaves (DAL) were collected from under the trees where as dry almond hulls (DAH) were collected 4 weeks after harvesting the fresh samples. The chemical composition of substrates was determined using standard approaches and the metabolisable energy (ME), in vitro dry matter (DMD) and in vitro organic matter (OMD) digestibility were measured using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. The GAL contained 81 g crude protein (CP) kg-1 DM while DAH contained 103 g CP kg-1 DM. The CP was higher (P = 0.0003) in dry (leaves and hulls) than in green (leaves and hulls) samples. The ash content ranged from 99.2 to 181.5 g kg-1 DM in DAH and DAL, respectively, (P = 0.0041). The ether extract content ranged from 27 for DAH to 65 g kg-1 for DAL (P = 0.0018). The acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre content ranged from 185 to 304 and 444 to 620 g kg-1 DM (P = 0.04), for GAL and DAH, respectively. The DAH had the highest (P = 0.0001) GP24 and GP96. The DAH had the highest (P = 0.0001) potential GP (i.e., b), while the GP rate was highest for GAL and GAH (P = 0.034), ME was highest for DAH (P = 0.0001), and in vitro OMD was highest for DAH (P = 0.0001). The highest DMD (P = 0.0001) values were obtained with DAH followed by GAL, DAL and GAH, respectively. It can be concluded that almond hulls and leaves have a good nutritional potential to cover the maintenance nutrient requirements of small ruminants. Almond hulls and leaves can also be used as supplement to low quality mature pasture and/or crop residues. However, more studies are warranted to better characterize these feeds in in vivo animal feeding trials. es
dc.language.iso eng es
dc.publisher Springer es
dc.rights openAccess es
dc.rights https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ es
dc.rights openAccess es
dc.rights https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ es
dc.subject Almond es
dc.subject Digestibility es
dc.subject In vitro gas production es
dc.title The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility evaluation of almond tree (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus; var. Shokoufeh) leaves versus hulls and green versus dry leaves as feed for ruminants es
dc.type Artículo es
dc.provenance Científica es
dc.road Dorada es
dc.organismo Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia es
dc.ambito Internacional es


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  • Título
  • The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility evaluation of almond tree (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb syn. Prunus amygdalus; var. Shokoufeh) leaves versus hulls and green versus dry leaves as feed for ruminants
  • Autor
  • Mostafa Yousef, Elahi
  • Hassan, Kargar
  • Mohammad Salehi, Dindarlou
  • Ahmed E., Kholif
  • Mona M., Y. Elghandour
  • Rojas-Herna´ndez, Saul
  • E. Odongo, Nicholas
  • Salem, A.Z.M.
  • Fecha de publicación
  • 2016-05-21
  • Editor
  • Springer
  • Tipo de documento
  • Artículo
  • Palabras clave
  • Almond
  • Digestibility
  • In vitro gas production
  • Los documentos depositados en el Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México se encuentran a disposición en Acceso Abierto bajo la licencia Creative Commons: Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

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